## Euclid, Elements of Geometry, Book I, Proposition 4 (Edited by Dionysius Lardner, 1855)

Proposition IV. Theorem.
[Euclid, ed. Lardner, 1855, on Google Books]

 (62) If two triangles (B A C and E D F) have two sides (B A and A C) in the one respectively equal to two sides (E D and D F) in the other, and the angles (A and D) included by those sides also equal; the bases or remaining sides (B C and E F) will be equal, also the angles (B and C) at the base of the one will be respectively equal to those (E and F) at the base of the other which are opposed to the equal sides (i. e. B to E and C to F).

Let the two triangles be conceived to be so placed that the vertex of one of the equal angles D shall fall upon that of the other A, that one of the sides D E containing the given equal angles shall fall upon the side A B in the other triangle to which it is equal, and that the remaining pair of equal sides A C and D F shall lie at the same side of those A B and D E which coincide.

Since then the vertices A and D coincide, and also the equal sides A B and D E, the points B and E must coincide. (If they did not the sides A B and D E would not be equal.) Also, since the side D E falls on A B, and the sides A C and D F are at the same side of A B, and the angles A and D are equal, the side D F must fall upon A C; (for otherwise the angles A and D would not be equal.)

Since the side D F falls on A C, and they are equal, the extremity F must fall on C. Since the extremities of the bases B C and E F coincide, these lines themselves must coincide, for if they did not they would include a space (52). Hence the sides B C and E F are equal (50).

Also, since the sides E D and E F coincide respectively with B A and B C, the angles E and B are equal (50), and for a similar reason the angles F and C are equal.

Since the three sides of the one triangle coincide respectively with the three sides of the other, the triangles themselves coincide, and are therefore equal (50).

In the demonstration of this proposition, the converse of the eighth axiom (50) is assumed. The axiom states, that ‘if two magnitudes coincide they must be equal.’ In the proposition it is assumed, that if they be equal they must under certain circumstances coincide. For when the point D is placed on A, and the side D E on A B, it is assumed that the point E must fall on B, because A B and D E are equal. This may, however, be proved by the combination of the eighth and ninth axioms; for if the point E did not fall upon B, but fell either above or below it, we should have either E D equal to a part of B A, or B A equal to a part of E D. In either case the ninth axiom would be contradicted, as we should have the whole equal to its part.

The same principle may be applied in proving that the side D F will fall upon A C, which is assumed in Euclid's proof.

In the superposition of the triangles in this proposition, three things are to be attended to:

1° The vertices of the equal angles are to be placed one on the other.

2° Two equal sides to be placed one on the other.

3° The other two equal sides are to be placed on the same side of those which are laid one upon the other.

From this arrangement the coincidence of the triangles is inferred.

It should be observed, that this superposition is not assumed to be actually effected, for that would require other postulates besides the three already stated; but it is sufficient for the validity of the reasoning, if it be conceived to be possible that the triangles might be so placed. By the same principle of superposition, the following theorem must be easily demonstrated, ‘If two triangles have two angles in one respectively equal to two angles in the other, and the sides lying between those angles also equal, the remaining sides and angles will be equal, and also the triangles themselves will be equal.’ See prop. xxvi.

This being the first theorem in the Elements, it is necessarily deduced exclusively from the axioms, as the first problem must be from the postulates. Subsequent theorems and problems will be deduced from those previously established.

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