We study SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of Wilson fermion at non-zero chemical potential mu and low temperature on a 8^3x16 system. We identify three régimes along the mu-axis. For mu<~m_pi/2 the system remains in the vacuum phase, and all physical observables considered remain essentially unchanged. The intermediate régime is characterised by a non-zero diquark condensate and an associated increase in the baryon density, consistent with what is expected for Bose-Einstein condensation of tightly bound diquarks. We also observe screening of the static quark potential here. In the high-density deconfined régime we find a non-zero Polyakov loop and a strong modification of the gluon propagator, including significant screening in the magnetic sector in the static limit, which must have a non-perturbative origin. The behaviour of thermodynamic observables and the superfluid order parameter are consistent with a Fermi surface disrupted by a BCS diquark condensate. The energy per baryon as a function of mu exhibits a minimum in the deconfined régime, implying that macroscopic objects such as stars formed in this theory are largely composed of quark matter.